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Ultimate Guide to Selecting the Right Pressure Gauge

Mechanical pressure gauges are instruments used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications to measure the pressure of gases or liquids. They are critical instruments that ensure the safe and efficient operation of numerous processes and machinery across a wide range of industries. One can commonly be found used in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, automotive, and manufacturing industries.

The value of pressure gauges stems from their capacity to detect pressure changes in real time, putting the user in command of timely responses and interventions to prevent system failure, leaks, and other potential hazards. The primary function of pressure gauges is to monitor and manage the pressure of various substances in tanks, pipelines, and other systems, ensuring that they function properly.

With numerous pressure gauges available in the market, It becomes very crucial to choose the right pressure gauge. selecting the wrong one can result in inaccurate readings, system failure, or safety hazards.

The pressure gauge’s design, material, and accuracy are the most basic and important aspects of pressure gauges, which must be carefully selected to ensure it is suitable for the intended purpose. Additionally, it is also critical to consider factors such as pressure range, operating temperature, environment, and medium compatibility.

When selecting a suitable pressure gauge, the following factors should always be considered. You will be able to select the Pressure Gauge based on these factors.

  • Determine the appropriate pressure range for your application.
  • Consider the many pressure gauges on the market, including Bourdon Tube Gauges, Diaphragm Gauges, Differential Pressure Gauges, and Digital Gauges.
  • Determine the level of accuracy and resolution required for your application.
  • Consider the environmental conditions in which the gauge will operate.
  • Ensure that the gauge is compatible with your system’s mounting technique and size criteria.
  • Consider the safety regulations and norms that apply to your industry.

The following steps one must consider before choosing the Pressure Gauges:

Pressure Range:

The initial and primary consideration is the pressure range needed for your application. Determine the maximum and lowest pressure levels that will be applied to the gauge. It is critical to choose a gauge that can properly measure the expected pressure range while also offering enough overload safety. To avoid false readings or instrument damage, make sure the pressure gauge’s range is appropriate for the specific system or operation.

According to ASME B40.100, normal operating pressure should be kept between 25% and 75% of the scale. If the process contains pulsation, the maximum operating gauge pressure should not exceed 50% of the full-scale range.

Also read: 5 Detailed Applications for Pressure Sensors in Industry

Gauge Type:

There are various types of pressure gauges available, each designed for specific applications. Some common types include:

  • Bourdon Tube Gauges: These gauges use a curved tube that expands and contracts in response to variations in pressure. They are appropriate for general-purpose applications and provide high accuracy and dependability.
  • Diaphragm Gauges: Diaphragm gauges employ a flexible diaphragm that deflects when subjected to pressure. Because they are more resistant to damage and contamination, they are good for monitoring low pressures and corrosive fluids.
  • Differential Pressure Gauges: These gauges determine the pressure differential between two places. They’re frequently found in filtering systems, flow metering, and HVAC applications.
  • Digital Gauges: Digital pressure gauges offer exact readings as well as sophisticated capabilities like data logging and wireless networking. They are suited for high-accuracy and data-integration applications.

Accuracy and Resolution:

Many industries rely on precise pressure measurements. Consider the precision and resolution required by your application when choosing a pressure gauge. Gauges having a smaller percentage error and better resolution may be required for high-precision applications.

The accuracy of a mechanical pressure gauge is expressed as a percentage of the full-scale range. While standards varied per industry, the following are typical guidelines:

  • Accuracy of test gauges and standards: 0.25% to 0.10% whole scale.
  • Critical Processes: full-scale accuracy of 0.5%.
  • 1.0% accuracy in most industrial processes. Less Important Commercial Applications: 2.0% accuracy.

For further information on accuracy, see ASME B40.100.

Mounting and Size:

When choosing a pressure gauge, keep mounting requirements and space constraints in consideration. The gauge should be compatible with your system’s mounting technique, which might be direct installation, panel mount, or remote mount. Furthermore, check that the gauge size is adequate for the given area without masking other components or posing a safety threat.

Gauges come with a range of connectors, including NPT, DIN, JIS, BSP, and SAE. Process pressure gauges with 4 1⁄2˝ ” dial diameters or greater are often supplied with a 1⁄2˝ ” NPT connector to effectively support the gauge. Process pressures, gauge size and weight, space constraints, leak integrity, and previous experience are all factors to consider when choosing a pressure gauge connection.

Environmental Conditions:

The pressure gauge’s performance and durability are heavily influenced by the environment in which it will function. Temperature, humidity, vibration, and exposure to corrosive chemicals can all have an impact on gauge accuracy and longevity. 

Check that the pressure gauge you choose is appropriate for the environmental conditions of your application. For hostile settings, specialised gauges with protected characteristics such as hermetically sealed cabinets or liquid-filled dials may be necessary.

The pressure gauge’s wetted components, as well as the Bourdon tube and socket, must be compatible with the process medium. Corrosion will occur if the wetted elements of the gauge are not compatible. 

Corrosion of gauge-wetted components will eventually lead to gauge failure and potentially dangerous situations. A diaphragm should be considered when the gauge-wetted elements are incompatible with the process media.

Safety Considerations & connection location:

Pressure gauges that correspond to current industry standards and regulations are essential in safety-sensitive applications. Look for gauges that are approved and, if applicable, suited for hazardous environments. Additional safety mechanisms, such as blowout discs or pressure relief valves, should be considered to safeguard the gauge and prevent catastrophic failures.

Consider the following mounting options when selecting a pressure gauge:

  • Stem mount lower connect
  • Wall/surface mount lower connect
  • Panel mount back connect
  • U-clamp flush mount back connect, for panel mounting
  • Front flange flush mount back connect, for panel mounting

In conclusion, selecting the right pressure gauge is critical to ensuring accurate and reliable readings. Consider factors like the environment, wetted components compatibility, and certification needs. To assure quality and durability, choose a Certified Indian Pressure Gauge Manufacturer when choosing a pressure gauge. Taking the effort to select the appropriate pressure gauge for your application will result in improved performance and cost savings in the long term.

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What Are Multipoint Designs And Their Common Applications?

Process managers in the chemical, oil, and gas industries are constantly seeking ways to optimize our operations to increase productivity and efficiency while maintaining safety and reliability. Temperature plays a defining role in these industrial processes. 

From ensuring the required physical state of the material to the safety of the entire plant, temperature control is most crucial to process or plant managers. One approach that can help us achieve these goals is through the use of multipoint thermocouple designs in our processes.

What are Multipoint Designs?

A multipoint design refers to a system in which multiple thermocouples are strategically placed throughout a process to provide more accurate and comprehensive temperature data on the process conditions. This data can then be used to identify potential issues, optimize the process parameters, and ensure that the process is operating within the desired parameters. 

Common Applications of Multipoint Designs 

Areas of applications:

  • Reactors and Distillation fractionators
  • Fixed and fluidized bed reactors
  • Distillation columns
  • Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units
  • Catalytic reforming process
  • Hydro-treating (HDT) units
  • Hydrocracker Unit (HCU)  
  • Hydro-desulfurization (HDS) units
  • Product storage tanks and silos
  • Pilot Plants

Multipoint Thermocouples have many applications in the following industries:


One common application of multipoint thermocouple designs is in monitoring and controlling the temperature in chemical reactors, refineries, and other industrial processes. By placing thermocouples at multiple points within the process, operators can obtain a more accurate and detailed understanding of the temperature distribution and how it may be impacting the process. This information can be used to adjust process conditions and prevent issues such as hot spots or thermal runaways.

Heat Treatment 

Another common application of multipoint thermocouple designs is in heat-treating processes, such as annealing or tempering of metals. By installing thermocouples at multiple points within the furnace or oven, operators can obtain more detailed information on the temperature distribution throughout the process. This information can be used to optimize the heat treatment process and ensure that the desired properties are achieved in the finished product.

Furnaces and Boilers

Multipoint thermocouple designs can also be used in furnaces or boilers that require precise temperature control. By installing multiple thermocouples throughout the combustion chamber, operators can obtain more accurate temperature data and adjust the combustion parameters to optimize fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

In addition to these specific applications, multipoint thermocouple designs can also be used more broadly in process monitoring and control. By collecting temperature data from multiple thermocouples throughout a process, operators can obtain a more comprehensive understanding of how the process is operating and how it may be impacting other parts of the system. This information can be used to optimize process parameters, identify potential issues, and improve overall system performance.

Of course, implementing a multipoint thermocouple design in a process requires careful planning and consideration. It is important to identify the key process parameters that need to be monitored, determine the optimal thermocouple locations, and ensure that the thermocouples are installed and calibrated correctly. 

Additionally, the data obtained from the thermocouples must be properly analyzed and integrated into the process control system to ensure that it is used effectively.

Overall, multipoint thermocouple designs offer a valuable tool for process managers in the chemical, oil, and gas industries to optimize their operations and improve safety and reliability. By leveraging the power of multiple thermocouples strategically placed throughout a process, operators can obtain more comprehensive and accurate temperature data on key process parameters and use that data to make informed decisions and optimize system performance.

General Instruments Consortium is more than just a renowned manufacturer of high-quality measuring instruments. As a competent partner, we collaborate with you to design and develop innovative products and solutions that are specifically tailored to suit your applications. Get in touch with us for Multipoint Designs for your industrial process and more.

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5 Ways Level Gauges Help In Chemical Industry For Level Measurement

Imagine you are a chef in a busy kitchen, and you are cooking a large pot of soup. The level gauges in your pot are like your senses, helping you to monitor the level of liquid in your pot and adjust the heat and ingredients accordingly.

Just as a chef uses their senses to taste and smell the soup and adjust the seasoning and heat, instrumentation managers rely on level gauges to monitor the liquid levels in tanks and vessels and adjust the chemical processes accordingly. Without level gauges, it would be like cooking a soup without tasting it, which would result in an unbalanced and potentially inedible dish.

In the chemical industry, level gauges provide instrumentation managers with critical information about the liquid levels in tanks and vessels, which they can use to optimize chemical processes, ensure safety, and prevent waste. They help instrumentation managers to make informed decisions about when to start and stop chemical reactions, when to add more ingredients or reagents, and when to transfer liquids to other equipment or containers.

Let us look at five ways Level Gauges help in the chemical industry.

  • Providing Accurate Readings

The primary function of a level gauge is to give an accurate reading of the fluid level in a tank or vessel. This information is crucial in the chemical industry. Gauges such as Magnetic Level Indicators help prevent overfilling or underfilling storage tanks, reactors, and distillation columns, which can lead to safety hazards or inefficiencies.

  • Enhancing Process Control

Level gauges are also used in the chemical industry to help improve process control. With accurate readings from reflex level gauges, operators can quickly adjust the process parameters, such as flow rate or temperature, to maintain optimal process conditions. This helps to improve process efficiency, reduce energy costs, and minimize waste.

  • Aiding Maintenance Planning

Level gauges can also help plan maintenance activities. By monitoring the fluid levels in tanks and vessels with the help of float and tape-type level gauges, operators can anticipate when maintenance is required. This will help minimize downtime and avoid unexpected maintenance issues.

  • Improving Safety

Safety is of utmost importance in the chemical industry, and level gauge manufacturers in India can help improve safety by providing early warning of potential hazards. For example, suppose a tank is overfilled. In that case, it can release toxic or flammable gases, posing a serious risk to employees and the environment. With accurate readings of a transparent level gauge, operators can quickly take action to prevent such incidents.

  • Streamlining Inventory Management

Effective inventory management is crucial in the chemical industry. Level gauges can help streamline inventory management by providing real-time information on fluid levels in tanks and vessels. Radar Level Transmitter Suppliers can help you optimize inventory levels, reducing the risk of stockouts or overstocking.

In conclusion, level gauges play a critical role in the chemical industry, providing accurate readings, enhancing process control, aiding maintenance planning, improving safety, and streamlining inventory management. Whether you need a reflex level gauge, or a magnetic level gauge, it is essential to choose a reliable and experienced supplier to ensure that your level measurement needs are met.

General Instruments Consortium has been leading the level gauge manufacturing industry in India for more than 5 decades. With a strong focus on problem-solving with innovative, customized solutions, Team General is always ready to help instrumentation managers get the most out of their instruments. Reach out to the General Instruments team today to ensure a comprehensive level measurement solution for your chemical industry operations.

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4 Industrial Applications for Thermocouples

Thermocouples are the planet’s most widely used temperature sensors due to their enormous temperature capabilities, reliability, and low cost. Thermocouples are used in home appliances, industrial processes, electric power generation, furnace monitoring, control, food and beverage processing, vehicle sensors, aviation engines, rockets, satellites, and spacecraft.

Thermocouples and RTDs contribute to improved final products by assisting in the optimisation of temperature management during the production process. Thermocouples are commonly employed to provide temperature measurements when high temperatures, compact size, quick responsiveness, significant vibration, or shock are present.

Food and beverage industry

The food and beverage industries use thermocouples for various purposes, including pasteurisation, refrigeration, fermentation, brewing, and bottling. When utilising a thermocouple temperature sensor, you don’t have to worry since it provides exact temperature readings for frying and cooking, ensuring your food is prepared correctly.

Thermocouples are often used in restaurant equipment such as grills, toasters, fryers, warmers, and ovens. In addition, thermocouples in the form of temperature-sensing probes are used in cooking equipment in large-scale food processing operations.

Thermocouples are also utilised in breweries since optimal fermentation and microbial contamination prevention require exact temperatures.


The furnace conditions to which the thermocouple will be subjected aid in determining the best thermocouple for the application. 

Some of the requirements to consider while choosing a thermocouple are:

  • The thermocouple wires’ temperature capacity.
  • The temperature tolerance of the sheath or protective covering (metal or ceramic).
  • The environment in which it will be employed (air, reducing, oxidising, inert).
  • The mounting arrangement

Because of the extraordinarily high temperatures involved, determining an accurate temperature measurement for molten metals such as steel, zinc, and aluminium may be difficult. Types B, S, and R platinum thermocouples and Type K and N base metal thermocouples are the most often used temperature sensors for molten metals. The temperature range of your metal-related application would determine the best kind.

Plastic Manufacturing

Precision temperature control is required for manufacturing plastic items. Thermocouples are commonly used to monitor temperature during plastic production in various applications. They are used in diecasting moulds and injection to detect the melting or surface temperature.

In plastic processing, thermocouples are classified into two types. The thermocouple may be used to determine the transmission of plastic heat function based on their cross-section. The thermocouple must identify the applied force dissimilarity.

Temperature sensors may be everywhere, from injection moulding machines and extruders to thermoforming machines and pellet dryers.

Thermocouples can also be used to create items in the plastics industry. As a result, the second type of thermocouple used in the plastics sector comprises product design and engineering. The thermocouple must be used in product engineering to calculate temperature variations in materials, especially over the product’s shelf life.

Engineers can choose a thermocouple appropriate for the materials they want to employ in their products. They may also use the thermocouple to evaluate the design’s performance. This allows them to make modifications before beginning the manufacturing process.

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Fermentation, heating, granulation, mixing, filtering, chemical extraction, tabletting, compression, coating, and drying are all physical processes used in pharmaceutical manufacture. Many of these processes require the application or removal of heat, which thermocouples will monitor and transmit back to the process controllers.

RTDs will be utilised in place of thermocouples when temperature measurement is crucial, and high precision is required. As is always the case, the placement, structure, and configuration of these thermocouples will be determined by the specific application.

There are several varieties of thermocouples that have numerous uses in diverse sectors. Thus, whether you work in engineering services, steel fabrication, food and beverage, or plastics manufacturing, General Instruments thermocouples are likely to be frequently utilised to measure and monitor the temperature.

Are you ready to discover turnkey thermocouples suited for your application? Contact the General Instruments Consortium Team right now!

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5 Detailed Applications for Pressure Sensors in Industry

One of the most essential physical quantities in our surroundings is pressure. It plays an important role in industrial applications such as thermodynamics, aerodynamics, acoustics, fluid mechanics, soil mechanics, and biophysics.

Many automotive, medical, industrial, consumer, and construction technologies rely on accurate and consistent pressure readings to function successfully. This is because overpressure can deteriorate enclosures or drains and cause considerable damage to important equipment types.

Let us look at 5 such applications of analogue pressure sensors in the industry.

  • Manufacturing Industry

Pressure sensor applications in the manufacturing industry continue to grow due to the demand for more tightly regulated processes and the accompanying quality control needs. The increased pressure and vacuum monitoring can detect the need for equipment repair before premature breakdowns create excessive downtime and raise manufacturing expenses.

Pressure sensors are increasingly used in applications such as bottle and equipment leak detection, Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems, air blades, compressed air pressure monitoring, industrial flow monitoring, filter pressure monitoring, duct airflow, gas detection, pneumatic controls, mine safety instrumentation, industrial degassers, and suction check in pick and place applications such as the printed circuit boards and semiconductor process equipment.


  • Life-Saving Medical Applications

With the medical equipment market advancement, greater demands are placed on the usage of pressure sensors in the medical sector. Precision, reliability, stability, volume, and so on must be met.

Hyperbaric treatment increases the air pressure in a sealed container enclosing a patient. It may be used to treat various medical ailments, including skin grafts, burn injuries, carbon monoxide poisoning, and decompression sickness in divers.

Analogue pressure sensors have practical uses in catheter ablation and temperature sensor measurement. Thermodilution catheters, urethral catheters, oesophagal catheters, central venous catheters, and intracranial pressure vessels are all examples of catheters.


  • Water Treatment Pressure Sensors

In wastewater management and water treatment facilities, pressure measurement is employed in filtration, system pressure, flow, and levels. Pressure sensors in this business must deliver reliable readings in corrosive materials, effluents, solids, vibration, and pulsation-prone situations.

They are utilised to monitor the system and offer vital information for proactive reaction to any odd situations that may emerge. Pressure sensors are essential in water supply and sewage treatment because they provide crucial control and monitoring for system protection and quality assurance.

Pressure sensors are used in aeration basins, chemical feeds, chlorination, chlorine removal and distribution, flocculation, raw material inlets, mixing vessels, pumping stations, sedimentation operations, and storage activities. Products designed for this business must be accurate and dependable across multiple pressure cycles. They must be able to measure pressures ranging from vacuum to 1,000 bar or more.


  • Petrochemical Applications

The pressure sensor is one of the most often used measurement devices in the petrochemical sector for control. Almost all pressure sensor applications are included in large-scale chemical projects: differential pressure, absolute pressure, gauge pressure, high pressure, micro differential pressure, high temperature, low temperature, and remote transmission flange pressure sensors of various materials and special processing.

Pressure sensors are in great demand in the petrochemical sector for three reasons:

  • Dependability 
  • Stability 
  • High accuracy

Because of the way a refinery is structured, a pressure sensor may be hundreds of feet away from the control system to which it is connected, necessitating a long cable run to connect. 

These cable lines serve as great antennas for picking up EMI/RFI/ESD signals from nearby cabling and machines. However, this electrical “noise” can overpower, distort, or corrupt high-impedance analogue signals in the connection. Hence, analogue systems are recommended for such applications.


  • Energy Efficiency

In 2021, the industrial sector placed a renewed emphasis on energy efficiency. With energy costs rising at an alarming rate, such concentration is now financially and morally imperative.

This has naturally transferred to the items that industrial enterprises require to ensure maximum functioning while minimising expenses. The onus is on product makers across the sector to constantly innovate in order to fulfill the needs of a changing business landscape.

Analogue pressure sensor measurements are required for improved energy conservation in portable and stationary weather stations, diesel truck emissions testing devices, wind energy systems, wind engineering in relation to new building design aerodynamics, ocean research, high-altitude weather research balloons, water pollution devices, smoke stack mercury sampling, and atmospheric studies.

Why analogue pressure sensors?

If the present system is based on analogue control, one advantage of adopting analogue pressure sensors is the ease of setup. 

An analogue sensor connected to an analogue-to-digital (ADC) converter would be a simpler alternative for detecting dynamic processes than a digital pressure sensor, which requires a specific protocol to establish communication with the device. 

Pure analogue pressure sensors are ideal for system electronics that require very quick active feedback control loops.

Are you searching for pressure sensor solutions for your industrial application? General Instruments offer a wide range of NABL-certified pressure measurement instruments designed for the highest performing accuracy. Get in touch with General Instruments now.

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