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Choosing the Right Thermocouple Sensor Configuration for Your Application

In the world of measuring extremely highs to freezing lows temperature, where accuracy is vital and dependability is non-negotiable, one instrument has repeatedly been shown to be the go-to solution: the thermocouple sensor. This concealed equipment, which typically resembles a basic construction with a coupled wire of different materials, holds the power to convert temperature into valuable data across various industries.

Consider a sensitive chemistry of industrial operations in which an engineer simultaneously analyses many chemical reactions. In this fast-paced company where macro-level accuracy is maintained and operated, thermocouple sensors work as oversight bodies, ensuring that each reaction and tank is appropriately kept at the desired temperature within narrow limits.

Their influence, however, is not limited to the chemical tanks and inside the shop floor only. These sensors are also used in large organisations to monitor the sensitive chemistry of industrial operations. It is used in nearly all industries: Power Generation, Mining, Oil/Gas, Pharmaceutical, Biotech, Cement, Paper, Glass, and many more.

Technical Brilliance: The Core Of Accurate Measurement

But why are thermocouple sensors the preferred option?

Its power comes from its capacity to read temperature using a basic yet clever scientific principle. When different metals come together, they produce unique electrical phenomena known as the Seebeck effect. The phenomenon causes a voltage to be generated, which indicates the temperature. This fundamental concept underpins thermocouple sensors’ adaptability, allowing them to work everywhere from the sky to medical facilities.

Geometry and Construction of Thermocouple Sensors:

At the heart of a thermocouple sensor lies a cleverly designed junction. This is when two separate metals come together to generate a measuring point. The thermocouple’s properties and ability to detect temperature fluctuations correctly are defined by the metals utilised.

The junctions may be grouped into several configurations, each with its own set of benefits.

The following are examples of thermocouple sensors based on the geometries:

  • Grounded Junction:  In this design, the two metals are physically linked, allowing for direct temperature measurement contact. It has quick response times but may be prone to corrosion owing to direct contact with the environment.
  • Ungrounded Junction:  The two metals are insulated from one other, lowering the danger of corrosion. However, due to the insulation, reaction times may be slightly slower.
  • Exposed Junction:  Only one of the metals is exposed to the environment in this design, protecting the other metal. It achieves a good blend of response time and durability.

Thermocouple Junction Design

Technical Advantages of Thermocouples:

Thermocouple sensors are among the finest temperature-measuring equipment in the industry due to the fundamental principle, Seebeck Effect, and functionality-friendly design alternatives. It offers significant physical benefits for application of temperature sensing across various processes and environments depending on the required parameters. And thermocouples technological advantages include:

  • Temperature Range:  Thermocouple sensors have an extraordinary working range, allowing them to endure temperatures ranging from freezing lows to blistering highs. Due to their adaptability, they are useful in a variety of industries, from monitoring the freezing depths of space to the burning heat of industrial furnaces.
  • Fast Response Time:  Owing to their lightweight design, thermocouples have a great ability to respond quickly to temperature changes. The sensor junction’s low mass guarantees that even little temperature changes can be detected quickly, making them excellent for operations needing real-time adjustments.
  • Durability and toughness:  Thermocouples are designed to withstand adverse conditions that might harm other sensors. Their resistance to mechanical stress, vibrations, and severe temperatures makes them reliable partners in industries such as manufacturing, where accuracy and dependability are essential.
  • Cost-Effectiveness:  Among temperature sensors, thermocouples stand out as cost-effective options that do not compromise precision. Their simple design and compatibility with a variety of materials contribute to their low cost without harming their capacity to produce exact temperature readings.

Also read: 4 Industrial Applications for Thermocouples

Thermocouple Sensors Applications Across Industries:

Thermocouple sensors demonstrate their extraordinary adaptability across a wide range of industries, leaving an obvious mark on each. Their dependability and precision have opened the way for applications that value precision and durability.

Here’s a look at how these concealed sensors impact different industries:

  • Industrial Sector: A critical instrument in manufacturing, HVAC systems, and energy generation, providing robustness and precise temperature measurements.
  • Food Industry:  Improving customer well-being by monitoring cooking, storage, and transportation temperatures.
  • Aircraft and automotive:  Surviving in the harsh environments of engines and aircraft components, optimising performance and assuring safety.
  • Medical Industry:  Medical Devices such as MRI scanners and sterilisation equipment are critical for patient care and safety.

Calibration and precision:

NIST Standards create stringent calibration criteria that serve as the foundation for thermocouple readings throughout sectors. This standardisation ensures that thermocouple temperature data meets worldwide accuracy criteria.

Furthermore, the search for precision extends to Compensation Techniques, with an emphasis on precision-enhancing practices such as cold junction compensation. These methods improve measurement accuracy by accounting for possible imperfections at the junction where the thermocouple wires link to the measuring equipment. Implementing these adjustment approaches improves accuracy and makes trustworthy temperature data a reality, supporting key alternatives.

Also read : Ultimate Guide to Selecting the Right Pressure Gauge

Future Trends and Innovations in Thermocouples Sensors:

As technology advances, the thermocouple sensor ecosystem develops, bringing new possibilities that promise to transform temperature measurement.

  • Wireless Thermocouples: The development of wireless technology has given temperature sensing new life. Wireless thermocouples are freeing sensors from cable restrictions, allowing for remote collection of information and real-time monitoring.
  • Integration of Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials are ready to bring in a new age for thermocouples. The incorporation of nanotechnology can improve thermocouple sensor sensitivity, reaction time, and durability. Nanomaterials with remarkable thermal characteristics, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, can improve thermocouple performance. 


In a world where precision is prized, thermocouple sensors serve as unshakable monitors of temperature observation. It is one of the most suitable, effective, and affordable types of temperature measuring device. Their technological superiority continues to establish new standards, from the fundamental concepts that drive them to real-world applications of thermocouple sensors. With decades of experience in manufacturing temperature sensors and thermocouples, General Instruments Consortium can help you select the best thermocouple for your application standards and demands. As industries continue to push limits and technology advances, thermocouples remain trustworthy companions in our search for temperature-measuring precision, reliability, and understanding.

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How To Choose The Correct Pressure Switch For Your Application

Pressure switches are instruments present in a system where adequate pressure is an integral part of system operation. A pressure switch is activated when a predetermined pressure point is reached. The significance of pressure switches stems from their relevance in lowering the possibility of equipment or personnel hazards.

They are commonly used in commercial and residential settings to open or close an electrical switching element. High quality pressure switches have been demonstrated in worldwide onshore and offshore sectors for their accuracy, dependability, safety, and long product life cycle.

With so many different types of pressure switches on the market, selecting the right pressure switch for your application is critical. Selecting the wrong one can lead to system failure or even safety hazards.

In this blog, we will outline the steps and present to you a pressure switch selection guide to ensure that you choose the right pressure switch according to your application. 

The following factors should always be considered when choosing  the right  pressure switch.

  • Assess the process fluid type
  • Identify the apt pressure range according to your application.
  • Understand if the pressure switch can achieve your required setpoint 
  • Determine the working temperature 
  • Evaluate repeatability of pressure switches:
  • Compare the various types of pressure switches
  • Take into account the safety requirements and standards that apply to your industry

The following steps one must consider while chossing pressure switches:

  • Assess the process fluid type: 

The primary consideration while choosing the right pressure switch is the type of fluid used in the pressure switch. The material used must be compatible with the materials of the pressure switches, which means it must be resistant to common chemical and physical attacks that can be induced by the application material. 

Typical fluid types used with pressure switches are

  • Hydraulic oil
  • Turpentine
  • Petrol
  • Air
  • Water
  • Identify the apt pressure range according to your application:

After the fluid type, the most crucial consideration  is the pressure range. Determine that your pressure switch can not only handle your normal pressure range but also can also handle the pressure spikes in your application. Along with this, the type of pressure (vacuum or positive) must also be considered while choosing the pressure switch 

  • Understand if the pressure switch can achieve your required setpoint:

Setpoint constraints must be addressed while selecting a right pressure switch. There are particular setpoints related with pressure switches, regardless of the kind. It is also necessary to establish whether your application entails the use of dual set points.Dual set points are required by any application that needs to be notified if the pressure is lower & higher than a certain point.

  • Determine the working temperature:

When choosing the pressure switches, its effectiveness according to temperature must be given imoirtance. Usually, there is a datasheet that typically lists the temperature specifications that a particular pressure switch can withstand. Exceeding a switch’s stated temperature limitations can result in safety risks.

Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a preferred material to work with medium temperature, when the element used is air or hydraulic oil. However, when the medium is water, ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) is considered to be better material. Flurosilicone rubber is preferred for applications that operate on higher temperature. 

Also Read: Ultimate Guide to Selecting the Right Pressure Gauge

  • Evaluate repeatability of pressure switches:

The repeatability of the switches is their ability to offer the same setpoint time after time. Different styles of pressure switches have varied repeatability. Generally, electronic pressure switches tend to have better accuracies. 

  • Compare the various types of pressure switches:

There are several types of pressure switches available, each tailored for a unique use. Along with identifying the right type of pressure switch to be used, it is also necessary to assess whether the pressure switch requires further calibration such as tags, wall/pipe mount, metric labelling, factory set (XFS) etc based on the application.You must also ensure that the switch’s end connection is compatible with your application.

Some common types of pressure switches to choose from include:

  • Indicating Pressure Switches (Pressure Gauge with Switch)
  • Indicating Differential Pressure Switches (Differential Pressure Gauge with Switch)
  •  Blind Pressure Switch
  • Blind Differential ressure Switch

Also Read: 5 Detailed Applications for Pressure Sensors in Industry

  • Take into account the safety requirements and standards that apply to your industry:

In safety-critical applications, pressure switches that meet current industry standards and regulations are crucial. Look for gauges that have been authorised and, if necessary, are suitable for hazardous areas. This comprises both hazardous and industrial certifications such as explosion proof, non-incendive safety, boiler limit control approval, and so on. Determining which application is required varies according to the application of the switch in your industry.

Additionally, considerations such as the environment in which the pressure switch will be utilised should be taken into account to guarantee the safe operation of pressure switches. You must also examine what IP/NEMA ratings that you must meet. Pressure switch certifications such as UL, CSA, FM, CE, and others are available to improve the quality of pressure switches.

In conclusion, selecting the right pressure switches is critical for ensuring smoother operations. To assure quality and durability, choose a high quality instrumentation solution provider when choosing a pressure switches. Taking the effort to select the appropriate pressure switch for your application will result in improved performance. 

The experts at General Instruments Consortium can assist you in finding the right  pressure switch for your application.Contact us today to talk to one of our instrumentation expert.

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A Complete Overview and Types of Pressure Gauges

Pressure gauges are one of the most commonly encountered industrial instruments. It is not  possible for you to walk through the industrial site without encountering his instrument.


What are pressure Gauges?


Pressure gauges are instruments used to measure the pressure of liquid or gas. Many techniques and devices have been desired to measure pressure accurately. Traditionally pressure gauges were mechanical with an analogue device attached. However, today we have pressure gauges operating digitally also. 

In this blog, we will explore three commonly used pressure gauges in the industry today.

What Are The Types of Pressure Gauges?

  • Diaphragm pressure gauge:

What is a  diaphragm pressure gauge?

A diaphragm pressure gauge is a differential pressure gauge that uses a flexible membrane-like diaphragm to measure the pressure in a system. Because of the structure of the membrane, it is also referred to as a flexible membrane pressure gauge.

How does the diaphragm pressure gauge work?

In such kind of pressure gauge, there is a circular element (diaphragm) clamped made of steel or Inconel, welded between a pair of flange. The pressure deforms this diaphragm, translating into the pointer’s movement on the attached dial.  

 Application of pressure gauge:

Diaphragm pressure gauges are extremely useful for measuring low-pressure changes, even as low as 0.23psi.

Below is a list of the common application of diaphragm pressure gauge according to different scenarios.

  • Chemical and Power Plants
  • Fluid transport systems such as Pipelines
  • Laboratory
  • Hydraulic systems
  • Gas storage tank
  • Boiler
  • AC unit 
  • Medical equipment such as blood pressure monitoring gauges.

  • Bourdon Pressure Gauge:

What is a bourdon pressure gauge?

A bourdon pressure gauge uses a coiled shape tube to measure the pressure. Owing to the high-pressure range and high sensitivity to pressure changes, it is an ideal instrument to be used in industries that need real-time monitoring. This gauge is also relatively inexpensive and easy to use, making it a preferred choice of many industries.

How does the Bourdon pressure gauge work?

In such kind of pressure gauge, a semi-circular or coiled shape tube is opened to the atmosphere at one end. The pressure changes cause the tube to expand. The change is then translated to the pointer needle of the attached dial.

Application Of Bourdon Pressure Gauge

The Bourdon gauge has been in use for the last 100 years. It remains one of the standard pressure gauges. Below is a list of the common application of the bourdon pressure gauge according to different scenarios.

  • Cylinder & Pumps
  • Water treatment 
  • Power plants
  • HVAC systems
  • Automotive industry
  • Agriculture
  • Oxygen tanks and other medical equipment
  • Bellow Pressure Gauge:

What is a Bellow Pressure Gauge? 

The piston Pressure Gauge comprises thin metallic discs that expand or contract proportionately to the pressure applied.

How does the bellow pressure gauge work?

In the Bellow pressure gauge, one end of the instrument is sealed, and the other remains open. When pressure is applied on the closed part, the bellow moves, and the pointer attached moves to suggest the pressure. Two bellow pressure gauges are commonly used: single below pressure gauges and dual bellow pressure gauges. 

 Application of Bellow Pressure Gauge:

Bellow pressure gauges are suitable for measuring low to moderate pressure but are not recommended if an indicator is needed in high-pressure applications. Below is a list of the common application of bellow pressure gauges according to different scenarios.

  • Measure air in the system.
  • Measure oil in the system
  • Aerospace system 
  • Engine systems
  • Electrical interrupters

Choosing the correct pressure gauge instrument:

When you choose a pressure gauge, factors like the material’s durability according to the industry and the pressure type to be measured should be considered. Choosing the correct pressure gauge will be more straightforward if you select a manufacturer that provides you with varied pressure gauges.

You can choose different types of pressure gauges at General Instrument, a leading pressure gauge manufacturer In India. With GIC, you can find an apt instrument for measuring differential pressure. Being a  differential Pressure gauge manufacturer, we can manufacture customized pressure gauges according to your application.


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Exploring The Benefits Of Radar Level Transmitters: Why They’re The Smart Choice For Level Measurement

Level measurement is the equivalent process to the industry compared to the blood pumping of a heart. It keeps the process and different functions align with other components of the machineries in a plant. 

As the significance and presence of the level measurements process and instruments are so common amongst the different industries, that every single industry has found itself the most suitable working principle to do the level measurement as per their most convenient method.

One of such working principle is transit time. It can be carried out in two ways, ultrasonic-based level measurement and radar-based level measurement.

Radar-based level measurements/ Radar level transmitters can measure levels in both contact and non-contact ways. A probe is dipped into the fluid tank during the contact type of measurement, and radio signals travel to the bottom of the tank and reflect from the varying levels of fluids in the tank. 

In the non-contact type of Radar level measurement, radio waves are emitted from the top of the tank, travel to the bottom, and reflect the receiver from the various fluid levels.

The following are the most common principles of level measurement.

  • Based on pressure
  • Based on transit time and is divided into two types they are ultrasonic based level measurement and radar-based level measurement
  • Based on attenuation and radiation
  • Electrical level measurement based on conductivity
  • Capacitive level measurement

Also read: 5 Ways Level Gauges Help In Chemical Industry For Level Measurement

Working Principle Of Radar-Based Level Measurement

Radar level transmitters work similarly to ultrasonic transmitters, determining the distance from the transmitter (placed at some high point) to the surface of a process material situated further down by measuring the time-of-flight of a travelling wave.

The primary difference between a radar and an ultrasonic instrument is the type the wave used: radio waves rather than sound waves.

Radar level transmitters are the ideal solution for precise level measurement when reliability and precision are critical. Since the Radar-Based working principle is based on non-contact measurement. It has various advantages over other types of level measuring. 

Advantages Of Radar-Based Transmitters/Radar-Based Level Measuring Instruments

  • Superior Accuracy: Radar level transmitters reach unmatched accuracy by utilising modern signal processing techniques to produce very precise and reliable level measurements. These transmitters excel in giving exact data, optimising process control, and assuring operational efficiency even in hostile settings characterised by severe temperatures, pressure differentials, or vapours.


  • Non-Contact Measurement: The ability of radar level transmitters to measure levels without making physical contact with the substance is its defining characteristic. This non-intrusive technology reduces the possibility of contamination, corrosion, or sensor damage, making it perfect for applications demanding the highest level of purity and sensitivity.


  • Versatility Across Materials: Radar-level transmitters are intended to work with a wide range of materials, including liquids, slurries, granules, and powders. Their measuring precision is unaffected by changes in density, viscosity, or dielectric constant, allowing for accurate measurements in a wide range of industries and applications.


  • Range Capability: Using radar technology, these transmitters have outstanding measuring ranges, allowing for exact level detection in towering tanks or deep vessels. They easily penetrate vapours, foam, or dust, ensuring accurate readings even under the most difficult operating circumstances.


Also read: Radar Level Transmitter: A new phase in contactless level measurement

Why A Radar-Based Level Measurement Is The Future?

We’ve previously discussed how significant and widespread level measuring is in the industry. In this instance, selecting the proper technology is critical for precise and dependable results. 

Among the different alternatives available, radar-based level measuring is the superior choice. This is most likely why many industry experts and professionals only consider the most reputable Radar Level transmitter manufacturers and suppliers.

  • Unmatched Accuracy & Precision
  • Non-Contact and Non-Intrusive
  • Versatility & Adaptability to wide range of materials
  • Exceptional Range Capability
  • Robust Performance

Radar-based level measurement equipment has emerged as the industry’s chosen form of a level measurement instrument for accurate and consistent level measurements. Its five most advantageous characteristics are unparalleled precision, non-contact operation, material adaptability, remarkable range capabilities, and solid performance, making it the ideal choice for a wide range of applications. 

Industries may improve process control, safety, and operational efficiency by utilising radar-based level measuring technology, eventually leading to higher production and profitability. Lastly, due to its peak performance and industry favourite, there are multiple cheaper models with no proper identification and hall-mark available in the market. 

So, make sure fr your level measurement practises you buy radar-based transmitters from the authentic and registered Radar Level transmitter supplier.

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Ultimate Guide to Selecting the Right Pressure Gauge

Mechanical pressure gauges are instruments used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications to measure the pressure of gases or liquids. They are critical instruments that ensure the safe and efficient operation of numerous processes and machinery across a wide range of industries. One can commonly be found used in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, automotive, and manufacturing industries.

The value of pressure gauges stems from their capacity to detect pressure changes in real time, putting the user in command of timely responses and interventions to prevent system failure, leaks, and other potential hazards. The primary function of pressure gauges is to monitor and manage the pressure of various substances in tanks, pipelines, and other systems, ensuring that they function properly.

With numerous pressure gauges available in the market, It becomes very crucial to choose the right pressure gauge. selecting the wrong one can result in inaccurate readings, system failure, or safety hazards.

The pressure gauge’s design, material, and accuracy are the most basic and important aspects of pressure gauges, which must be carefully selected to ensure it is suitable for the intended purpose. Additionally, it is also critical to consider factors such as pressure range, operating temperature, environment, and medium compatibility.

When selecting a suitable pressure gauge, the following factors should always be considered. You will be able to select the Pressure Gauge based on these factors.

  • Determine the appropriate pressure range for your application.
  • Consider the many pressure gauges on the market, including Bourdon Tube Gauges, Diaphragm Gauges, Differential Pressure Gauges, and Digital Gauges.
  • Determine the level of accuracy and resolution required for your application.
  • Consider the environmental conditions in which the gauge will operate.
  • Ensure that the gauge is compatible with your system’s mounting technique and size criteria.
  • Consider the safety regulations and norms that apply to your industry.

The following steps one must consider before choosing the Pressure Gauges:

Pressure Range:

The initial and primary consideration is the pressure range needed for your application. Determine the maximum and lowest pressure levels that will be applied to the gauge. It is critical to choose a gauge that can properly measure the expected pressure range while also offering enough overload safety. To avoid false readings or instrument damage, make sure the pressure gauge’s range is appropriate for the specific system or operation.

According to ASME B40.100, normal operating pressure should be kept between 25% and 75% of the scale. If the process contains pulsation, the maximum operating gauge pressure should not exceed 50% of the full-scale range.

Also read: 5 Detailed Applications for Pressure Sensors in Industry

Gauge Type:

There are various types of pressure gauges available, each designed for specific applications. Some common types include:

  • Bourdon Tube Gauges: These gauges use a curved tube that expands and contracts in response to variations in pressure. They are appropriate for general-purpose applications and provide high accuracy and dependability.
  • Diaphragm Gauges: Diaphragm gauges employ a flexible diaphragm that deflects when subjected to pressure. Because they are more resistant to damage and contamination, they are good for monitoring low pressures and corrosive fluids.
  • Differential Pressure Gauges: These gauges determine the pressure differential between two places. They’re frequently found in filtering systems, flow metering, and HVAC applications.
  • Digital Gauges: Digital pressure gauges offer exact readings as well as sophisticated capabilities like data logging and wireless networking. They are suited for high-accuracy and data-integration applications.

Accuracy and Resolution:

Many industries rely on precise pressure measurements. Consider the precision and resolution required by your application when choosing a pressure gauge. Gauges having a smaller percentage error and better resolution may be required for high-precision applications.

The accuracy of a mechanical pressure gauge is expressed as a percentage of the full-scale range. While standards varied per industry, the following are typical guidelines:

  • Accuracy of test gauges and standards: 0.25% to 0.10% whole scale.
  • Critical Processes: full-scale accuracy of 0.5%.
  • 1.0% accuracy in most industrial processes. Less Important Commercial Applications: 2.0% accuracy.

For further information on accuracy, see ASME B40.100.

Mounting and Size:

When choosing a pressure gauge, keep mounting requirements and space constraints in consideration. The gauge should be compatible with your system’s mounting technique, which might be direct installation, panel mount, or remote mount. Furthermore, check that the gauge size is adequate for the given area without masking other components or posing a safety threat.

Gauges come with a range of connectors, including NPT, DIN, JIS, BSP, and SAE. Process pressure gauges with 4 1⁄2˝ ” dial diameters or greater are often supplied with a 1⁄2˝ ” NPT connector to effectively support the gauge. Process pressures, gauge size and weight, space constraints, leak integrity, and previous experience are all factors to consider when choosing a pressure gauge connection.

Environmental Conditions:

The pressure gauge’s performance and durability are heavily influenced by the environment in which it will function. Temperature, humidity, vibration, and exposure to corrosive chemicals can all have an impact on gauge accuracy and longevity. 

Check that the pressure gauge you choose is appropriate for the environmental conditions of your application. For hostile settings, specialised gauges with protected characteristics such as hermetically sealed cabinets or liquid-filled dials may be necessary.

The pressure gauge’s wetted components, as well as the Bourdon tube and socket, must be compatible with the process medium. Corrosion will occur if the wetted elements of the gauge are not compatible. 

Corrosion of gauge-wetted components will eventually lead to gauge failure and potentially dangerous situations. A diaphragm should be considered when the gauge-wetted elements are incompatible with the process media.

Safety Considerations & connection location:

Pressure gauges that correspond to current industry standards and regulations are essential in safety-sensitive applications. Look for gauges that are approved and, if applicable, suited for hazardous environments. Additional safety mechanisms, such as blowout discs or pressure relief valves, should be considered to safeguard the gauge and prevent catastrophic failures.

Consider the following mounting options when selecting a pressure gauge:

  • Stem mount lower connect
  • Wall/surface mount lower connect
  • Panel mount back connect
  • U-clamp flush mount back connect, for panel mounting
  • Front flange flush mount back connect, for panel mounting

In conclusion, selecting the right pressure gauge is critical to ensuring accurate and reliable readings. Consider factors like the environment, wetted components compatibility, and certification needs. To assure quality and durability, choose a Certified Indian Pressure Gauge Manufacturer when choosing a pressure gauge. Taking the effort to select the appropriate pressure gauge for your application will result in improved performance and cost savings in the long term.

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